Thursday, August 27, 2020

Private Health Insurance In Kenya Economics Essay

Private Health Insurance In Kenya Economics Essay Protection is a course of action by which one gathering The safety net provider vows to pay another gathering the safeguarded or strategy holder a whole of cash if something happens which makes the guaranteed endure money related deficit (Diacon.S.R and Carter R.L, 1998) In the previous scarcely any years, private medical coverage segment in Kenya has been recorded as the most noteworthy shortfall making protection class with deficit proportions of 74.0 percent, 80.4 percent , 81.5 percent and 83.5 percent in 2008, 2009 2010 and 2011 individually (AKI report, 2011). Private medical coverage has kept on performing ineffectively in the year 2011, posting lost 650 Million contrasted with lost Kshs. 530 Million in the earlier year. As indicated by the Association of Kenya Insurers (2011), just four out of the 20 Private medical coverage suppliers in Kenya made an endorsing benefit in 2011, the four incorporate General Accident Insurance Company, Jubilee Insurance Company, Mercantile Insurance Company and Real Insurance Company. The part has the most noteworthy deficit proportion in the business of 83.5% with net earned premiums coming to KES 8.9bn (US$74.5mn) and net brought about cases came to KES 5.4 bn (US$60.6mn). This pattern has been reliable throughout the previous 4 years 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, with all signs that 2012 will likewise be a misfortune, a circumstance has incited the Private medical coverage premiums to be expanded every now and then yet the circumstance has not been improved a lot, it is along these lines basic to inspect the difficulties confronting Private health care coverage organizations and their impact on business execution with a perspective on illuminating future protection strategy detailing. This examination will look to explore the cchallenges confronting insurance agencies in the arrangement of Private Health protection and their impact on business execution since this area is a significant one for the financial advancement of the Nation henceforth the need to watch it. This part presents the foundation of the investigation, proclamation of the issue, reason for the examination, research goals, research questions, avocation of the investigation, hugeness of the investigation, suppositions confinements and delimitations, meaning of terms and section rundown. 1.1 Background of the Study Medical coverage is a type of cooperation by methods for which individuals on the whole pool their hazard, for this situation the danger of causing clinical costs. It is an agreement between an insurance agency and an individual or a support as a business. The agreement can be sustainable yearly or month to month contingent upon the understanding between the gatherings in that agreement. The sort and measure of medicinal services costs that will be secured by the health care coverage organization are determined ahead of time, in the part strategy contract. The significance of medical coverage can't be belittled in any economy. As saw by Wasow and Hill (1986) who contended that medical coverage is a significant channel for budgetary capital amassing. Medical coverage organizations strategies offer approaches, which are bought solely to secure the client against hazard. They frequently include considerable reserve funds. This is on the grounds that Insurance organizations must gather saves against foreseen future cases which accommodate huge aggregates of cash, which can be loan to people, the administration, trade and industry. As indicated by the World wellbeing Organization (World Health Report, 2008), access to social insurance is the privilege of each person. Governments everywhere throughout the world have along these lines embraced different projects so as to understand this target. The Government of Kenya has likewise not been abandoned on this as Kenya is a signatory to the Abuja Declaration (Institute of Policy and Research, 2005) which requires its signatory part states to spend at any rate 15% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on human services. As of the year 2009, Kenya burned through 9% of her GDP on social insurance which was far beneath the suggested extent (IPAR, 2005). Medical coverage plans are an inexorably perceived factor as a device to fund medicinal services arrangement in low and center pay nations. Given the high dormant interest from individuals for human services administrations of a decent quality and the extraordinary under-use of wellbeing administrations in a few nations, it has been contended that social medical coverage may improve the entrance to medicinal services of worthy quality. While elective types of human services financing and cost recuperation systems like client charges have been vigorously censured, the choice of protection is by all accounts a promising option as it is a likelihood to pool hazard moving, unforeseeable medicinal services expenses to fixed premiums. Private medical coverage is viewed as private when the outsider (safety net provider) is a benefit looking for association, for example, the private insurance agencies. In Private Health protection, individuals pay premiums identified with the normal expense of wellbeing administrations to be given to them. In this manner, individuals who are in high wellbeing hazard bunches pay more, and those at okay save money. Enrollment to a private protection conspire is typically intentional and is exclusively founded on the choice of the guaranteed. Private Health protection has been offered by general protection firms as one of their arrangement of items. One of the general objectives of the Government of Kenya is to advance and improve the wellbeing status of all Kenyans by making wellbeing administrations increasingly productive, accessible and reasonable. The significance of Private medical coverage in the arrangement and use of social insurance can't be overemphasized. Financing for social insurance has become a helpful obligation shared among the administration, managers, and insurance agencies in view of the significance of the administration and the increasing expenses of clinical administrations. This makes Private medical coverage one of the most huge instruments to keep up a sound workforce to drive the economy. Private medical coverage inclusion is given by open and private sources. Open sources incorporate National Hospital Insurance Fund while private sources incorporate private insurance agencies, for example, APA insurance agency Kenya constrained, UAP Insurance Company restricted, Jubilee Insurance Company and Madison Insurance among others 1.1.1 Private medical coverage Medical coverage is an institutional and money related component that helps family units and private people to put aside budgetary assets to meet expenses of clinical consideration in occasion of ailment. It depends on the rule of pooling reserves and entrusting the board of such assets to an outsider that pays for human services expenses of individuals who add to the pool. The outsider can be government, business, insurance agency or a supplier (Kraushaar, 1994). Wangombe et al., (1994) distinguish two classes of private medical coverage in Kenya: direct private medical coverage and, work based protection. Direct private medical coverage is over the top expensive and just the center and high-salary bunches bear the cost of it (Nderitu, 2002). In the work based plans, the business gives care straightforwardly through boss possessed nearby wellbeing office, or through manager contracts with wellbeing offices or human services associations. These are both intentional wellbeing plans and are not enacted by the administration. 1.1.2 Private Health Insurance in Kenya As per the AKI report (2011) there was 47 licenses insurance agencies with 20 organizations authorized to practice and deal medical coverage items. There are extra 23 clinical Insurance suppliers (MIPs) which are a greater amount of oversaw care association. The absolute premiums for private clinical protection in 2011 were over 8.3 billion with claims proportion at 83.5 percent. Private medical coverage represents 15 percent of the gross all out premium for all protection items in 2011. As per the World Bank working paper number 193 (2010), the medical coverage entrance remains at 2 percent with around 600,000 individuals guaranteed with open protection and more than 2 million safeguarded under the open protection NHIF In the previous hardly any years, private medical coverage part in Kenya has been recorded as the most noteworthy misfortune making protection class with misfortune proportions of 74.0 percent, 80.4 percent , 81.5 percent and 83.5 percent in 2008, 2009 2010 and 2011 individually (AKI report, 2011). Private medical coverage has kept on performing inadequately in the year 2011, posting lost 650 Million contrasted with lost Kshs. 530 Million in the earlier year. As indicated by the Association of Kenya Insurers (2011), just four out of the 20 Private Health Insurance suppliers in Kenya made a guaranteeing benefit in 2011, the four incorporate General Accident Insurance Company, Jubilee Insurance Company, Mercantile Insurance Company and Real Insurance Company. The part has the most elevated shortfall proportion in the business of 83.5% with net earned premiums coming to KES 8.9bn (US$74.5mn) and net brought about cases came to KES 5.4 bn (US$60.6mn). 1.2 Statement of the Problem Notwithstanding various endeavors and techniques by insurance agencies to augment benefit, private medical coverage has been performing ineffectively The protection business in Kenya is encountering assorted difficulties, key among them being the poor open impression of protection (AKI Report, 2011 in spite of being the most elevated misfortune making class among different classes of protection. In the previous scarcely any years, private medical coverage division in Kenya has been the most noteworthy misfortune making class with misfortune proportions of 74.0 percent, 80.4 percent, 81.5 and 83.5per penny in 2008, 2009 2010 and 2011 individually (AKI report, 2011). Private medical coverage has kept on performing ineffectively in the year 2011, posting lost 650 Million contrasted with lost Kshs. 530 Million in the earlier year. As per the Association of Kenya Insurers (2011), just four out of the 20 Private medical coverage suppliers in Kenya made an endorsing benefit in 2011. The are a has the most elevated shortfall proportion in the business of 83.5% with net earned premiu

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Pathogens Compendium for outbreak investigations

Question: Depict about the Pathogens Compendium for episode examinations. Answer: 1) Post and examine your understanding of the information of the finished meetings Out of the 25 individuals who went to the goodbye party, information for 19 individuals are accessible. Out of the 19, 16 of them are accounted for debilitated inside a normal of 9 hours 20 minutes. Those wiped out had devoured meat of some structure served at the gathering. Those announced solid havent expended meat aside from chicken curry by one of them. The flare-up can't be ascribed to rice or bread with plunges (p = 0.53; RR = 1; 95% CI = 0.6-2.1) or to rough street (p = 0.57; RR = 0.8 95% CI = 0.6-1.0) as the majority of the members who are wiped out and wellbeing devoured both. The information focuses towards conceivable connection with the utilization of meat. Count of chi square utilizing the information of the individuals who devoured meat and fell wiped out (n=16), expended meat and sound (n=1) and those devoured veg food and wiped out or solid (n=0 or n=2) we found that utilization of meat brought about being wiped out (p = 0.0175; RR =3; 95% CI, 0.6-14.8). 2) Which pathogen is suspected? As indicated by information introduced and dissected we reached the resolution that utilization of meat is the most conceivable reason for the episode. Estimation of normal brooding period is around 9 hours. With the assortment of occasions that occurred we likewise that food was served cold and appear to be cooked ahead of time and put away in coolers. The entire situation focuses to a microbial pollution and not simply food contamination by metals or corruption of food, which are potential reasons for loose bowels. Out of the information accessible for 19 individuals who took an interest in the goodbye party 16 expended meat and 16 of them experienced sickness, looseness of the bowels which isn't related with fever. Presently concerning the information accessible with Food borne pathogen abridgment (Queensland Govt.) the most probable causative operator of the episode is Clostridium perfringens which coordinates the hatching time frame and malady side effects (McClane, 2003). Be th at as it may, an exact examination by breaking down the food test and stool of the individuals who are enduring will give a convincing thought of the causative operator. References: Queensland Government; Foodborne Pathogens Compendium for episode examinations 2010; Retrieved on 10 October 2016, McClane, B. A. (2003). Clostridium perfringens. FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-NEW YORK-MARCEL DEKKER-, 91-104.

Friday, August 21, 2020

What You Need to Know About Selling Essays For Sale Online

What You Need to Know About Selling Essays For Sale OnlineAre you a person who is contemplating on taking up this task of selling essays for sale online? In this article, I am going to help you out by giving you the inside scoop on some things that you need to know about this online business.Essays for sale online is quite a new concept in the world of e-commerce. The concept of selling such items online has been prevalent since some years now. And, as you are aware, e-commerce has changed the face of business too.If you have decided to become an online seller of essays for sale, then you need to take all the necessary steps that you can do to increase your business. It is through increasing your business that you can begin to earn a lot of money.Before you start, you need to choose the type of essay that you want to sell. For those who are still studying, you can choose topics that you feel that you have the ability to write. By this, you will be able to get more opportunities in se lling these essays. If you feel that you cannot write the type of topic that you want to sell, then you can always consider writing an essay that is related to the product that you want to sell.Another great way to increase your income is to put up advertisements on various websites that are related to your topic or even reviews for the different products that you want to sell. By doing this, you will be able to attract more traffic to your website.You also need to make sure that your essays are of the highest quality. It is through quality that you can easily attract potential buyers and make them interested in buying your essay. You must also ensure that your website is visually appealing so that buyers can easily find your essay within the few seconds that they want to spend.In addition, when you are writing essays for sale online, you need to make sure that your words are well organized. You must also make sure that you have taken the help of a professional copywriter so that yo ur writing is well organized and easy to read.By all means, sell your essays online if you want to make big money. But first you need to learn how to sell essays for sale online and you can do so by following the tips mentioned above.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Facebook A Non Replicable Competitive Advantage

According to, Facebook Incorporated is one of the social networking which enables users to share their pictures, videos, activities and opinions. The company’s reach is a non-replicable competitive advantage that can be explored to the advertisers’ curiousness. However, significant competition may impact its user base and level of user engagement, making it less attractive to developers and marketers, so the bad thing will affect its revenue and results of operations. From there we can tell the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Facebook’s company. From Facebook page information, in 2004 they found that Facebook’s mission is to give their users a power that they can share their things, connected to the world, and explored their world in their mind. With me, yes, their mission is correct because some of my friends in middle school did not contact each other for a long time we found our friends again by â€Å"Suggested Friends† option on Facebook. Facebook helps people know more of what the world is doing by other users sharing things they are interested in. Starting with their Strengths, growing user base contributing to increasing ARPU-average revenue per unit. According to the â€Å"The company provides unprecedented reach with 1.2 billion monthly active users (MAUs) as of December 2014, a significant increase from 901 million MAUs in 2012. In December 2014, the company had 208 million MAUs in the US and Canada; 301 million in Europe;Show MoreRelatedA Study On Equal Exchange1658 Words   |  7 Pagesbusiness to support farmers and trade their goods to not harm the environment. They opened the company as a worker-owned cooperative; it is seen as the one worker- one vote model. EE is a mission-driven business model that shows to be sustainable and replicable. Their idea was to connect trade products such as organic food, coffee, tea, and chocolate. EE is more than just a trading company trying to help small farmers make a difference; it is a faith based organization that allows other organizations opportunityRead MoreSt rategic Plan Of Google Inc2762 Words   |  12 PagesThe characteristic search results, academic articles, maps, videos, images, and other relevant information are largely reflective of the plethora of knowledge and creative skills that its employees possess and translate in their work. 3.1 Competitive Advantages Valuable: Google boasts of an intense interviewing process before hiring its employees and all this is only to maintain the impeccable standards that the world relates it with. Google considers its employees to be one of the most valuableRead MoreMarketing Analysis Of Owns A Stable Source Of Competitive Advantage By Producing Its Own Shoes Line6352 Words   |  26 Pagessuggest that the company serves the US market like no other company, an expansion of its current share should be considered. Even thou the investments that this would require, we agree that Zappos could expand and build a stable source of competitive advantage by producing its own shoes line, followed in the future by it’s own shoe related wear line. The main issue regarding the expansion of online market and the low barrier at the entrance that characterize the e-business is that many other shoeRead MoreMarketing Analysis Of Owns A Stable Source Of Competitive Advantage By Producing Its Own Shoes Line6352 Words   |  26 Pagessuggest that the company serves the US market like no other company, an expansion of its current share should be considered. Even thou the investments that this would require, we agree that Zappos could expand and build a stable source of competitive advantage by producing its own shoes line, followed in the future by it’s own shoe related wear line. The main issue regarding the expansion of online market and the low barrier at the entrance that characterize the e-business is that many other shoeRead MoreStuden Brand Comparison Betwen Apple and Samsung14106 Words   |  57 Pages49 Appendix 1, Questionnaire ................................................................................ 50 Appendix 2, Questionnaires e-mail .................................................................... 53 Appendix 3, Questionnaire on Facebook ............................................................ 54 Table of Figures Figure 1 A conceptual model for Brands preference ............................................ 20 Figure 2 Brand Equity Model ....................................Read MoreHow Can Amazon Use Positioning to Create a Strong Brand Identity in the Next 5 Years?17302 Words   |  70 Pages4 Jacqueline Ligtenberg Djuri van der Schaar Figure 0.1: Top 100 most valuable global brands (Campbell 2012) In the top 100 most valuable global brands of 2012 (figure 0.1) Amazon ranks at the 18th place right after Wal-Mart and just above Facebook, they lowered 4 places in rank compared to Amazon being at the 14th place in 2011 (Campbell, 2012). With this research the goal is to find out how to get Amazon back up in these ranks once more focusing on the retail category. Amazon has been successfulRead MoreThe Walt Disney Company Report15335 Words   |  62 Pagesinnocence transpired in the imagination of the Great Walt. E. Disney, that he created a tiny mouse with a squeaky voice but a mighty heart. This mouse has ruled the entertainment world with innocent and a mighty heart for nine decades, and is the first non human to receive an Oscar. The Walt Disney Company with its innocent creativity and its mighty aggressive business strategies has today reached a near monopoly in the entertainment industry. A revenue of 42.2 billi on and a total assets of whoopingRead MoreVolvo Marketing Strategy36220 Words   |  145 Pagesfour main values – quality, safety, environment and design. Indeed, according to Keller (2008), the establishment of strong values is crucial in brand positioning and in creating â€Å"brand superiority in the minds of consumers† and showing them â€Å"the advantages or points of difference a brand has over competitors† (Keller 2008: 38-39) in order to allow them to classify the brand in comparison to its competitors according to their values and personal images. In this study, we are going to examine if Volvo

Friday, May 15, 2020

Narrative Technique in DeLillo’s White Noise Essay

Narrative Technique in DeLillo’s White Noise American literature has evolved extensively over the course of the history of the republic, from the Puritan sermons which emphasized the importance of a solid individual relationship between the individual self and the omnipotent God to the parody of relativism we find in Joseph Heller’s Catch-22. One of the recurring concerns of American fiction, though by no means restricted to American writing, is the position of the self with regard to the other, whether manifest as God, nature, the community, or another individual. Since at least the Modernist period, writers have explored the definitions and relationships of the self formally as well as thematically and narratively. Don DeLillo’s†¦show more content†¦Frank Lentricchia has written in detail of the postmodern narrative technique of movement from a first-person subjectivity to a third-person objectivity as integral to the American experience. This distancing of the reader from the reality of the novel has s everal functions. By telling a story through the eyes of Gladney, we experience contemporary mass culture, DeLillo’s favorite theme, as Gladney does; we experience the same (or similar) disillusion and confusion that Gladney does and we share in Gladney’s distancing of himself from his experience. In this way, the narrator’s state of mind is a mimetic reproduction of anyone in the reader’s reality. The objectified subject technique that DeLillo employs also serves as the site of DeLillo’s further explorations of character, perception, and action. By treating a character who treats himself and his experience as an object, DeLillo can cast his characters into roles not mimetically coherent. The identity and characteristics of the narrator in the novel evoke a number of questions of critical importance to our understanding of the whole work and the interaction of its parts. Rarely has a work of fiction so utterly interweaved the relationship between narrator and story narrated so neatly and successfully. The choice of Jack Gladney as the novel’s narrator, called DeLillo’s most important formal decision (Lentricchia 93), literally casts the entire work in a new light, shiftingShow MoreRelated The Power of the Family in White Noise Essay examples1139 Words   |  5 PagesThe Power of the Family in White Noise    Don Dellilos protagonist in his novel White Noise, Jack Gladney, has a nuclear family that is, ostensibly, a prime example of the disjointed nature way of the family of the 80s and 90s -- what with Jacks multiple past marriages and the fact that his children arent all related. Its basically the antipodal image of the 1950s nuclear family. Despite this surface-level disjointedness, it is his family and the extrasensory rapport thatRead MoreElements of Postmodernism in Ishmael Reeds Mumbo Jumbo, Don Delillos White Noise, Toni Morrisons Beloved and Thomas Pynchons the Crying of Lot 496348 Words   |  26 Pagesconsideration of difference, an insistent attention to the local cultures and undervalued constituencies that modernisms exaltation of unity and grand narrative often obscured, which can easily be observed by reading and analyzing some of the most important works of American postmodern fiction. Works such as Ishmael Reeds Mumbo Jumbo, Don DeLillos White Noise, Toni Morrisons Beloved and Thomas Pynchons The Crying of Lot 49 are only a few of many which contain all or some of postmodernisms most distinguishableRead MoreFeatures of Metafiction and Well Known Writers of the Genre Essay3025 Words   |  13 Pagestheory of mimesis (imitation) posits that there is a world out there, a world in which we all live and act, which we call â€Å"the real world†. What fiction does (for that matter any art) is to try and (re) present this world using narrative techniques (or artistic techniques)† (Thaninayagam 12). Historiographic metafiction is an offshoot of postmodern art form. The term historiographic metafiction was coined by Linda Hutcheon in her book A Poetics of Postmodernism : History, Theory, Fiction. AccordingRead MorePostmodernism in Literature5514 Words   |  23 Pagesas a whole, is difficult to define and there is little agreement on the exact characteristics, scope, and importance of postmodern literature. However, unifying features often coincide with Jean-Franà §ois Lyotards concept of the meta-narrative and little narrative, Jacques Derridas concept of play, and Jean Baudrillards simulacra. For example, instead of the modernist quest for meaning in a chaotic world, the postmodern author eschews, often playfully, the possibility of meaning, and theRead More Transcendence and Technology in William Gibsons Neuromancer3154 Words   |  13 PagesTranscendence and Technology in Neuromancer      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Where do we go from here? Case asks near the conclusion of William Gibsons novel Neuromancer (259). One answer suggested throughout most of the narrative is nowhere. True, geographically we are whisked around the urban centers of Earth in the near future, Chiba City, the Sprawl, Istanbul, and then to the orbital pleasure domes and corporate stronghold of Freeside and Straylight. The kind of movement to which I am referring is not overtly

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Problems of the Food System Essay - 2113 Words

We live in an age in which we have come to expect everything to be instantaneously at our fingertips. We live in an age of instant coffee, instant tea, and even instant mashed potatoes. We can walk down the street at 5 in the morning and get a gallon of milk or even a weeks worth of groceries at our discretion. Even though it is great that food is now readily available at all times, this convenience comes at a price, for both the producer and the consumer. Farmers are cheated out of money and are slaves to big business, workers and animals are mistreated. And, because food now comes at a low cost, it has become cheaper quality and therefore potentially dangerous to the consumer’s health. These problems surrounding the ethics and the†¦show more content†¦Additionally, big business controls the farmers by capitalizing on widely used commodities. For example, the company Monsanto which is based in St. Louis, Missouri protects its dominance over the genetically modified crops such as the soy bean with the use of a patent law. Because of this, Monsanto’s patented genes â€Å"account for 95 percent of all soy beans and 80 percent of all corn grown in the U.S.,† (Associated Press). Although genetically modifying the soy bean crop has made it more readily available and more sustainable, this comes at a high price to farmers. Monsanto continues to raise their prices, which forces farmers to accrue even more debt, and there is no sign of the rise in the seed prices stopping. Since a lot of the farmers are under contract with Monsanto, there is nothing they can do about this unethical policy in fear of losing their job. If you think being a farmer is bad, try working in a slaughter house. â€Å"Knocker, Sticker, Shackler, Rumper, First Legger, Knuckle Dropper,† these are just a few of the positions the workers at a slaughterhouse get assigned to. Simply reading the names of the above job positions induces a sense of nausea and hints a t the inherent brutality that these positions demand (Schlosser, 172). Because the weight and size of cows are unpredictable, most of the labor in the slaughterhouse must be done by hand. On the kill floor of a slaughterhouse,Show MoreRelatedQuality Control : Quality Of A Product And Service1268 Words   |  6 Pagesfor employees to become involved in the quality process; effective leaders successfully communicate this to employees. Restaurant should be focusing on quality goal. And with employees in restaurant, helps to they create good ideas that every solve problems. 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Increased population led to mass production of foods. However, even with this mass production, in under-developed countries, people are still undernourished. On other hand, in developed and developing countries, people are overfed and suffering from obesity. In addition, the current methods of industrial farming destroy the environment. These problems raised a questionRead MoreThreats to Global Food Supplies Essay621 Words   |  3 Pages There are many threats to global food supplies. Explain the problem, identity possible solutions, and assess the implications of implementing these solutions. Because of the increasing world population and the growth of the environmental problems such as global warming and acid rain, global food supplies meet great challenges to feed so many people especially those in economically richer areas wasting foods. A series of problems following food supply shortage like the competition of landRead MoreUnderstanding The Impact Of Junk Food Essay1510 Words   |  7 Pages: Understanding the Impact of Junk Food INTRODUCTION Junk Food is that type of food which doesn’t contain nutritional value. It do not contain high level of calories and has little protein, vitamins and minerals. Such foods are also not good for health and has negative effects after consuming them. Why there is a More Demand of Junk Food? There are following reasons which shows that why people are attracted towards junk food:- â ¦  Preparation of junk food doesn’t take so much time and it isRead MoreThe Current Food Of Food707 Words   |  3 PagesThe current food system is highly market oriented and has many flawes that impact people in negative ways. The system contains problems starting form the production stage (farm labor issues) to the distribution ( food insecurities ). The current food system is primary driven by commodity rather than what people in communities want or need. In other words, because of globalization the food system provides customers with goods without asking the needs and want of the people. For instance, many citiesRead MoreOverpopulation Is The Scarcity Of Food Supplies1408 Words   |  6 PagesEarth can hold (ConserveEnergyFuture, 2013). When overpopulation occurs, the number of resources on Earth cannot support the total population, thus resulting in various problems that conflict with the world’s peace and harmony. One major problem that is caused by overpo pulation is the scarcity of food supplies. There is not enough food being produced to feed the mouths of the endlessly increasing population. Therefore, many people all over the world starve and are malnourished, which is why many armedRead MoreThe Food System Is Essential For Sustaining Human Life1345 Words   |  6 PagesThe food system is essential to sustaining human life, yet it often gets overlooked. Feeding a city comes with a lot of issues, especially feeding the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) at a population of 414,000 (Statistics Canada, 2015). Although food is required to sustain humans, it has not always been produced sustainably in Halifax. Food sustainability is not only concerned with the food people consume, but rather looks at the whole system, interconnecting social, economic, and environmentalRead MoreFood Security Movement And The Global Food Supply Initiatives977 Words   |  4 Pageslocal and global food systems controlling most of production, processing , distribution, marketing and retailing of food. This gives big businesses the power to eliminate competition and dictate their own terms to their suppliers forcing farmers and consumers into poverty and malnutrition. As a result, movements such as food security, global food supply initiatives and Food Sovereignty have been created to combat the damage big corporations have caused on farmers and communities. The food security movementRead MoreChief General Of The Un Food And Agriculture Organization1428 Words   |  6 PagesFormer Director-General of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Jacques Diouf, once commented, Defeating hunger is a realistic goal for our time, as long as lasting political, economic, financial, and technical solutions are adopted. In his speech, Diouf referred to a sustainable development issue known as food security, an international issue that involves the availability, access, utilization, and stability of food. With recent global attention directed towards seemingly more

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Money and Capital Market Analysis Samples †

Question: Discuss about the Money and Capital Market Analysis. Answer: Introduction The report provides a background to the understanding of the money and capital markets and financial institutional risk. It has a relation with the case that led to the collapse of the Barings and the same was due to the unauthorized trading and losses approaches carried by Nick Leeson in the derivatives market of the bank. Background of the case (Collapse of the Barings) The case is related with the collapse of the oldest merchant bank of Britain i.e. Baring Futures that collapsed in the year 1995 after landing in the debts of S$1.4 billion that was made by the one and only trustworthy employee named Nick Leeson. The Bank had been operating for around 233 years but the single handed company i.e. management by Nick led to the collapse. The major features of the case are as follows: Leeson was thought to be the most trustworthy employee because in the initial stages of joining the bank made high amount of contributions that were a result of the unauthorized trades of speculation and the same had led to 10% profits of the bank in 1993 (Abid Ahmed, 2014). On losing the amounts, he hid them and kept in a hidden account that was known as error account 88888. The auditors were kept away by hiding all the important documents of the banks. The losses of the bank had been almost half of its total capital in the year 1994 but still he did not disclose the same in any manner possible. He undertook the use of straddle i.e. part of the option trading on both the Singapore and Nikkei Stock Exchange by betting a drop of around 19000 points but, he lost around 7% per week due to the unexpected earthquake. The confidence of the bank on Nick did not lower down as they were not aware about the risks that were possessed by the bank. Leeson had been active and accurately made false declarations to the regulatory authorities that led to the accumulation of the losses for the avoidance of the margin call. The bank was benefitted from Bank of England even after the rule being that a bank could not lend an amount of more than 25% of the total capital to the other entity. But, after the Nick got aware that the final losses of S$2.2 million will not be recovered in the year 1995, he fled and after several attempts made to rescue, he was detained. Thus, the whole scenario led to the collapse of the bank that had been ruling for 223 years as the debt had exceeded the total owned capital of the bank (Bodur, 2012). It was after the occurrence of the Baring Case that there were strict management and actions taken to product the trading and losses under the futures and options contracts. Future Contracts and the principle behind it The major points are as follows: The contracts has a legal binding among two parties for buying and selling commodities of specified nature at a date specified in future that is identified in the present date. They allow the management and speculators to gain from the movement in the prices as it provides liquidity. The future contracts are offered by the exchanges in the future and thus the same provides a range of contracts for the management of the risks There are short, medium and longer term rates of interests for hedging the same and speculating the losses and avoiding them before hand (Chui, 2012). Basic rule that determines the timing of the various transactions RULE The basic rule is that while establishing the strategy of hedging that was also carried out in the Nick Baring case that undertook the help of the straddle option to hedge the losses is as follows: Conduct a dealing or transaction in todays date in the future market that will have a correspondence with the intention of the trader in the future date. In the case of the Baring Collapse case, Nick had hedged the losses in the stock exchanges of Singapore and Nikkei and put a bet that there will be a fall of 19000 points in the Nikkei exchange. But, the same turned upside down after the unexpected occurrence of the earthquake. Thus, the intention of having a future dealing by conducting at the present date determines a contract (Hamilton Micklethwait, 2016). PROCEDURE The procedures involved in buying the future contract are as below: The contracts get traded on formal platforms like the SFE exchanges There will be a broker who will help in placing the market order of buying or selling The dealings can be performed in open like the CBOT or in close electronic platforms like SFE The modern age use the approach of electronic trading systems and not open ones that automatically undertakes the matching of buy or sale. The records of the trading is conducted and the transactions are granted by the clearing houses There is a margin that represents the coverage of the adversity in the movement of the prices with which the contracts have been performed. There will be a daily system of carrying out of the mark to market rule by the clearing houses. A maintenance margin is maintained for saving the clients in cases where the movement of prices had gone against the client (Johal et al., 2012) Implications of being long and short The implication of being long in terms of future contracts represents the situation that the trader going long will possibly incur more losses in case of the fall in the underlying asset of the contract. The implication of being long in terms of future contracts represents the situation that the trader going short will possibly incur more gains in case of the rise in the underlying asset of the contract. Procedures for closing out positions prior to delivery The cases and the procedures are as under: In case of the closing out of the client before the date of the expiry, there is an undertaking of an opposite contract A long position is a buy contract of futures that intents to buy forward and the same is closed out by selling another contract with the same date of expiry and commodity A short position is a sale contract of futures that intents to sell forward and the same is closed out by buying another contract with the same date of expiry and commodity (Lui, 2012) Failure of the Barings management The management of the Baring Bank was inefficient and ineffective in its operations and functioning of its management system due to the following reasons: Nick had been adopting the system the putting off the losses in an account 88888 that was never identified by the management due the lack of proficiency and practice of expertise and due diligence The management system never took any steps to identify that there have been steps taken by Nick to hide the important and significant documents from the auditors to check the actual transactions and dealing occurring within the organization (Moosa Silvapulle, 2012) Risk management Nature of risk The risk is the possibility of unexpected or unanticipated occurrences that may occur within the company and it leads to an addition of ambiguity to the management of the business. It has an exposure towards both operational and financial operations. The risks and threats are a basic and fundamental part of every organization and the management of the same is a must for every entities. The risk of increasing debts exceeding more than the capital can lead to the loss of the going concern of the entire corporation as was seen in the case of the Barings collapse due to the misappropriation of the trading deals and losses by Nike the derivative trader of the Bank (Ojo, 2016). Purpose of risk management Risk management is an effective measure that is solely undertaken for the effective control and management of the going concern capacity and continuation of an entity. The risks must be identified in the initial stages and accurately assessed and evaluated to get an outline of the risks possessed by the company. By making an outline and approach, a corporation can maintain its position and safeguard itself from the vulnerability to the hazardous elements and threats present in the environment of the business organization (Persaud, 2014). Thus, the main purposes include: Assurance about the organization getting aware of the risks within the business operations Assurance about the personnel considering the outcomes of risk that are drawn from their decision making processes Establishment of a strong and healthy risk management objectives, policies, procedures and strategies to safeguard from a wide range of the risk exposures Responsibility for the establishment of risk management The responsibility of the establishment of risk management lies on the following: Board of directors those having charge to determine and document the objectives of management of risks The CEO i.e. chief executive officer and executive management are equally responsible towards the establishment of the procedures and strategies of the management of risks along with the structures of reporting of the same (Reason, 2016). The responsibility for the establishment of risk management objectives, policies, procedures and strategies in a corporation lays on the management system of the company i.e. the board of directors. The administrative forces and authorities are liable and accountable to present a plan and scenario of presenting the strategies to manage and safeguard the company from the risk identified by them in the initial stages of taking up the risk management policy. Thus, a Corporate Governance must be identified in the company to undertake the management of the risks arising within the organization (Sikka, 2015). Nick Leeson case The logic and reasons why risk must be identified measured and managed in the corporations with respect to the Nick Leeson case are as below: An organization must enquire before the types of exposures that exist in order to initiate the process of managing the risks and thus, the necessity of identification of the prospective or probable risks arises. The exposures that have a relation or link between the components of operational or financial nature must be known and thus must be identified accordingly. There are variations in the nature, scope and extent of the exposures related to the risks that varies as per the business operations as in case of Baring that was a financial institution and it has an exposure towards a wide range of risks and threats. Thus, after the identification and evaluation of the exposures of the risk, the prospective risks related to the operations and functions must be measured as per the given variety of situations (Singh, 2013) After the performance of the quantitative analysis, the corporation will become efficient towards deciding the management of the risks and the alternative strategies will be identified and analyzed for the accuracy in the policies of the risk management to implement the same. Main functions of capital Capital is the actual wealth of an entity that will assist and aid in the production of more and increased wealth. The functions include: Allowing the transactions and dealings to take place as per the requirement Maintaining the risk exposures and other margins required to continue the proceedings of a company Providing employment to the desirable staff Overview of Basel II framework The first pillar of the Basel II is Minimum capital requirements and it requires the standard minimum requirement. In the given case, the Baring Bank had attained capital that was against the rule, from the Bank of England as one bank can offer not more than 25% of the capital to another entity. The second pillar of the Basel II is Supervisory review and its deals with the provision of frameworks that deals with the strategic, reputational, systematic and a variety of other risks that occur within the environment. The third pillar of the Basel II is The Market Discipline and this determines the disclosure procedure of allowing the markets to gauge the adequate amount of requirement of the capital. Types of acceptable capital under the Basel II and Basel III The different types of acceptable capital under the Basel II and Basel III capital accords are as below: The factors that help in distinguishing Basel II and III are as follow: The stricter standards and the capital: In case of BASEL III, there is a requirement of 10.5% of the Risk Weighted Assets that will form a part of the overall capital base of the entity Buffer of Capital conservation: There has been an introduction of 2.5% of buffer or cushion to be maintained by the banks so that it can face the economic crisis or losses of financial nature. Counter-cyclical Buffer of Capital conservation: There has been an introduction of -0.25% of broader or wider buffer or cushion to be maintained by the banks so that it can face the excessiveness in the growth of the credits that means the enhancement of the risks in the sector of banks. Conclusion From the above case it can be understood and evaluated that the inefficiency in the money and capital markets can lead to an overall financial institutional risk. In the Barings Bank case, Nick had taken the benefit of the mismanagement occurring within the company. Thus, the management must take steps to manage and review the same in a continuous basis. The unauthorized trading and losses approaches can lead to the overall financial destruction that can be understood from the above case. 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